Encyclopedias have existed for around 2,000 years; the oldest still in existence, Naturalis Historia, was written in ca. 77 CE by Pliny the Elder. The modern Encyclopedia evolved out of dictionaries around the 17th century. Historically, some Encyclopedias were contained in one volume, but some, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, became huge multi-volume works. Some modern Encyclopedias are electronic and are often freely available, for example Wikipedia and Citizendium.
Sidebar is a term for information placed adjacent to an article in a printed or Web publication, graphically separate but with contextual connection. The term has long been used in newspaper and magazine layout. It is now common in Web design, where Sidebars originated as advertising space and have evolved to contain information such as quick links to other parts of the site, or links to related materials on other sites. Online Sidebars often include small bits of information such as quotes, polls, lists, pictures, site tools, etc.
Literature is sometimes differentiated from popular and ephemeral classes of writing. Terms such as literary fiction and literary merit are used to distinguish individual works as art-Literature rather than vernacular writing, and some critics exclude works from being literary, for example, on grounds of weak or faulty style, use of slang, poor characterization and shallow or contrived construction. Others exclude all genres such as romance, crime and mystery, Science fiction, horror and fantasy.
Archives were well developed by the ancient Chinese, the ancient Greeks, and ancient Romans. Modern archival thinking has many roots in the French Revolution. The French National Archives, who possess perhaps the largest archival collection in the world, with records going as far back as A.D. 625, were created in 1790 during the French Revolution from various government, religious, and private Archives seized by the revolutionaries.
With few students interested in higher Education, and due to the necessity to complete daily chores, Homework was discouraged not only by parents, but also by school districts. In 1901, the legislature passed an act that effectively abolished Homework for those who attended kindergarten through the eighth grade. But, in the 1950s, with increasing pressure to stay ahead in the Cold War, Homework made a resurgence, and children were encouraged to keep up with their Russian counterparts.